Numerical Models

Numerical Models

Until now, Dr. Niwano has developed the physical snowpack model SMAP and the polar regional climate model NHM-SMAP. More details on the models will come soon.

The physical snowpack model SMAP



Niwano, M., T. Aoki, K. Kuchiki, M. Hosaka, Y. Kodama, S. Yamaguchi, H. Motoyoshi, and Y. Iwata, 2014: Evaluation of updated physical snowpack model SMAP, Bull. Glaciol. Res., 32, 65-78,

Niwano, M., T. Aoki, K. Kuchiki, M. Hosaka, and Y. Kodama, 2012: Snow Metamorphism and Albedo Process (SMAP) model for climate studies: Model validation using meteorological and snow impurity data measured at Sapporo, Japan, J. Geophys. Res., 117, F03008,

The SMAP model has participated in the snow model inter-comparison project ESM-SnowMIP:

Krinner, G., C. Derksen, R. Essery, M. Flanner, S. Hagemann, M. Clark, A. Hall, H. Rott, C. Brutel-Vuilmet, H. Kim, C. B. Ménard, L. Mudryk, C. Thackeray, L. Wang, G. Arduini, G. Balsamo, P. Bartlett, J. Boike, A. Boone, F. Chéruy, J. Colin, M. Cuntz, Y. Dai, B. Decharme,  J. Derry, A. Ducharne, E. Dutra, X. Fang, C. Fierz, J. Ghattas, Y. Gusev, V. Haverd, A. Kontu, M. Lafaysse, R. Law, D. Lawrence, W. Li, T. Marke, D. Marks, M. Ménégoz, O. Nasonova,  T. Nitta, M. Niwano, J. Pomeroy, M. S. Raleigh, G. Schaedler, V. Semenov, T. G. Smirnova,  T. Stacke, U. Strasser, S. Svenson, D. Turkov, T. Wang, N. Wever, H. Yuan, W. Zhou, and D. Zhu, 2018: ESM-SnowMIP: assessing snow models and quantifying snow-related climate feedbacks, Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 5027-5049,

Ménard, C. B., Essery, R., Barr, A., Bartlett, P., Derry, J., Dumont, M., Fierz, C., Kim, H., Kontu, A., Lejeune, Y., Marks, D., Niwano, M., Raleigh, M., Wang, L., and Wever, N., 2019: Meteorological and evaluation datasets for snow modelling at ten reference sites: description of in situ and bias-corrected reanalysis data, Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 865-880,

Menard, C. B., Essery, R., Krinner, G., Arduini, G., Bartlett, P., Boone, A., Brutel-Vuilmetm, C., Burke, E., Cuntz, M., Dai, Y., Decharmem, B., Dutra, E., Fang, X., Fierz, C., Gusev, Y., Hagemann, S., Haverd, V., Kim, H., Lafaysse, M., Marke, T., Nasonova, O., Nitta, T., Niwano, M., Pomeroy, J., Schädler, G., Semenov, V., Smirnova, T., Strasser, U., Swenson, S., Turkov, D., Wever, N., and Yuan, H., 2020 : Scientific and human errors in a snow model intercomparison. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 125, in press,

The SMAP model has contributed to the estimation of concentration of light absorbing impurities in the surface snow through melt and sublimation/evaporation at Greenland and Sapporo, Japan:

Kuchiki, K., T. Aoki, M. Niwano, S. Matoba, Y. Kodama, and K. Adachi, 2015: Elemental carbon, organic carbon, and dust concentrations in snow measured with thermal optical method and filter weighing: variations during 2007-2013 winters in Sapporo, Japan. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 120, 868-882,

Aoki, T., S. Matoba, S. Yamaguchi, T. Tanikawa, M. Niwano, K. Kuchiki, K. Adachi, J. Uetake, H. Motoyama, and M. Hori, 2014: Light-absorbing snow impurity concentrations measured on Northwest Greenland ice sheet in 2011 and 2012. Bull. Glaciol. Res., 32, 21-31,

The polar regional climate model NHM-SMAP


Niwano, M., T. Aoki, A. Hashimoto, S. Matoba, S. Yamaguchi, T. Tanikawa, K. Fujita, A. Tsushima, Y. Iizuka, R. Shimada, and M. Hori, 2018: NHM–SMAP: spatially and temporally high-resolution nonhydrostatic atmospheric model coupled with detailed snow process model for Greenland Ice Sheet, The Cryosphere, 12, 635-655,

Niwano, M., Hashimoto, A., and Aoki, T., 2019: Cloud-driven modulations of Greenland ice sheet surface melt, Sci. Rep., 9, 10380,